File Permissions - chmod

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That's a nice tutorial but I found a lot easier way - with fstab: just add "uid=1000" in the options for each partition you want to be its owner, reboot and that's it.

UUID=79efb309-826e-40a7-a786-7b83b682dcb4 /               ext4    errors=remount-ro 0       1
UUID=88FCD635FCD61CEE /media/rado/Drive_D               ntfs    errors=remount-ro,uid=1000 0       1
UUID=6F01A23F6CA00FCF /media/rado/Drive_E               ntfs    errors=remount-ro,uid=1000 0       1
You are already uid=1000 by default, as the first normal (non-root) user set up by the system.

grep 1000 /etc/passwd

... should show rado and 1000

Also, although you may only be showing an example above with the NTFS partitions/drives, that method might have relevance if you are playing games that were Windows-based and you want to be able to access them (say, under Steam or Proton) under Linux so as not to have to set up new files, but other than that you are lowering security.

@Rob has, at the beginning

We will show you how to understand file permission symbols and how to modify certain files so that they're more secure.

My highlighting.

Besides, in Linux, you already have root privileges over Windows NTFS files and folders.

An example is here

chris@Tara-MATE:~$ cd /media/chris/OS/Windows/System32/GroupPolicy
chris@Tara-MATE:/media/chris/OS/Windows/System32/GroupPolicy$ ls -l
total 1
-rwxrwxrwx 1 chris chris 128 Mar  5 13:45 GPT.INI
drwxrwxrwx 1 chris chris   0 Feb  2 13:07 Machine
drwxrwxrwx 1 chris chris   0 Feb  2 13:07 User

So I already own those files and folders, without having to change anything.

Chmod (this Tutorial's subject) and chown are designed to be able to change the defaults of user access as part of a secure plan by the Administrator, as well as, in the case of chown, modifying downloaded files to make them executable.

Again as Rob has said, in 2013,

chmod 777 mydoc.txt read, write, execute for all! (may not be the best plan in the world...)

Whatever works for you with fstab, though, is great, it is a very useful file.


Chris Turner

Welcome to @shadow543 :). Google under

linux srwxrwxr-x

... and you will find some good reading.


Chris Turner
how to change a file's owner like i create a file but i want to change file ownership
With the chown command, try man chown.
       chown root /u
              Change the owner of /u to "root".

       chown root:staff /u
              Likewise, but also change its group to "staff".

       chown -hR root /u
              Change the owner of /u and subfiles to "root".
With the chown command, try man chown.
       chown root /u
              Change the owner of /u to "root".

       chown root:staff /u
              Likewise, but also change its group to "staff".

       chown -hR root /u
              Change the owner of /u and subfiles to "root".
Thank you so much it is very help full for me.
thanks again
This would help someone what exactly the numbers are in permissions,
so 4 in binary format is represented as 100 and 2 is 010 and 1 is 001.
What this means? Consider 'r', 'w', 'x' you either want them set or not set i.e., in binary digit representation it is either 0 or 1.
Therefore, when we want a file to have permission for any user group,
if it is 'rwx' => 111 ( set , set, set) => 100 + 010 + 001 => 4 + 2 + 1 => 7
Inturn 7 in binary representation is 111 = 1*2^2 + 1*2^1 + 1*2^0 = 7

'rw-' = 110 = 100 + 010 + 000 = 4+2 = 6
'r-x' = 101 = 100 + 000 + 001 = 4 + 1 = 5
'-wx' = 011 = 000 + 010 + 001 = 3
and similarly other combinations.

Hope this helps.
I just wanna know for a small query that is it possible to change permission out of directory? (i.e: Software and as well as others staff)
day 1 and I learnt a lot from first lesson itself, post and comments are very helpful.
Hey, I would like to grant myself permission to /opt/
so I wrote
chmod 777 /opt/
but It outputs
chmod: /opt/: Operation not permitted
I really don't care about security so it would be nice if I could grant everyone full access to everyfile
I have one doubt: Lets say I have created a file with name abc.txt and it has default permission as _rwxr_xr_x. So, if I want change it in to a directory (drwxr_xr_x) using Chmod, is it possible to change the directory flag or not?
What is 'S' and 'l' in below file permission?

(I know that similar question already asked in this thread but that 'S' is in directory flag place, however in this case it is in place of execution flag)

The l is a symbolic link and the s is the setuid bit. If you don't know what those are, search for those exact phrases and someone'll have explained them better than I will.
Basically what KGIII said. The l (lowercase L) means it's a symbolic link. Symbolic links are a pointer that points to the actual file/directory, sort of like a shortcut in Windows.

The s means the setuid bit is set. When you set the setuid bit on an executable file, the file will be executed as if the owner (in the case above, root) called it, permissions included. There is also a setguid bit, which executes under the owned group. Powerful, but potentially dangerous functionality, so take caution.
Hi there,

I am newbie here and started just learning Linux system. When I removed this "x" permission from a file (text file) I still can execute that files, may i know why?
Oh... Got the point now... it is working now.

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