LINKS FOR LINUX NEWCOMERS

Emanate Presence

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LINKS FOR LINUX NEWCOMERS
and resources for reference by old timers
Revised March 12, 2024
There will likely be unintended duplications, etc. here.
Corrections and additions are appreciated.
----
LINKS FOR LINUX ON THE FORUMS
https://www.linux.org/threads/links-for-linux-newcomers.48916/#post-221532
Composed by Emanate Presence, with much helpful input from the Linux forum and other users.
---
My setup is ordered and on the way:
Device: 2016 HTP 'Higher Thought Pad' (a.k.a. ThinkPad) with a German OS and keyboard
Intended OS: Mint Linux Cinnamon or Kubuntu

Before my first using the HTP with Linux:
Language to English
Setup Windows without online account
Factory reset or debloat Windows
Setup firewall
Choose Linux distribution
Setup Linux on pen drive
---
100 Best Applications for Ubuntu 2023
https://linuxhint.com/100_best_ubuntu_apps/

TOP 10 LINUX SCREEN RECORDERS IN 2024 + INSTRUCTIONS
https://screenrec.com/screen-recorder/linux-screen-recorders/

eSpeak: Text To Speech Tool For Linux
https://itsfoss.com/espeak-text-speech-linux/

Alternative desktops for Fedora
https://fedoraproject.org/spins/

APP FOR BEGINNERS
one of the most useful apps [especially for the beginner]
https://www.howtogeek.com/devops/the-linux-system-information-tool-inxi/

INSTALLING APP
Apps will likely be in the Ubuntu repository [you won't be able to check until you have installed your distribution]. When you have installed your distribution, click on the menu icon, now look for the software manager, click and open. It will have a search box, type the name of the app and a list will appear of anything associated with your search, select the app and click on install.

BOOT TYPES
1] Bootable Linux installation pen-drive
Make to install Linux to your computer [at least 4gb pen-drive]
2] Bootable pen-drive with persistence
Use as a non volatile hard-drive and needs to be at least 64gb.
3] Boot repair USB
More specialised and used to repair your boot system if broken

BOOTABLE USB
Balena will turn your usb stick ....into a "bootable" usb stick....
Balena Etcher
This is the download file which you get from : https://www.linux.org/pages/download/

Create the bootable media

DEBLOAT WINDOWS
https://github.com/Raphire/Win11Debloat

DEBIAN DISTRO PROS
1. Stability - Debian is stable system, you won't encounter what ever software or OS issues using it, so far I had zero issues that would require me to troubleshoot anything other than if I screw something myself
2. Large package repository - Debian's repo is huge, what ever software you need it's there and ready to be installed, very rarely will you need to resort to 3rd party repositories to install software.
3. Privacy - there is no spyware running on system of any kind and there is clear statement about software and release cycle

Major complaint from users is out of date packages and slow release cycles but that's what makes Debian stable, software available undergoes testings to minimize bugs as close to zero as possible. You can always install a newer version of software.

DESKTOP SESSION
Code:
echo $DESKTOP_SESSION

Open Terminal (ctrl+T)
Copy and paste it in and hit enter

It will tell you which desktop/session you are running

DISTROWATCH
https://distrowatch.com/

Distro Chooser
gives an "interview" to help you decide on a distro to try.
https://distrochooser.de/

DistroSea
actually lets your run a live Linux desktop through your web browser... if everything works as it should.

Dual Boot
"It depends on how you use it. Windows has a lot of security flaws. Since there will be an NTFS partition, I wouldn't feel comfortable using Linux for sensitive stuff on a dual boot machine."

Easy Linux Tips Project
https://easylinuxtipsproject.blogspot.com/p/2.html

EMANATE PRESENCE PROFILE ON LINUX FORUMS
https://www.linux.org/members/emanate-presence.175917/

FORUMS
https://www.linux.org/forums/

GNOME Desktop Environment for UBUNTU
GNOME YouTube 1


GNOME YouTube 2

History of Various Linux Distros

How Do I Install Linux (A General Guide)
https://linux-tips.us/how-do-i-install-linux-a-general-guide/

INSTALLATION GUIDE
Read this...it is straight from the guys who make Linux Mint
https://linuxmint-installation-guide.readthedocs.io/en/latest/install.html

This is what I would do, @Emanate Presence. {I have LM 21.3 installed on this computer} ~ Old Geezer Tango Charlie
1. Download Linux Mint 21.3 CINNAMON.
2. Use Balena Etcher to 'burn' LM to a flash disk.
3. When that is finished, shut down computer; leave flash disk attached to computer.
4. Start computer and enter the BIOS section. {While booting up tap F-2 key several times}
Make sure Fast Boot and Secure Boot are disabled.
5. Choose the flash disk to start from when the computer starts up.
6. Re-start computer.

If the computer starts with LM, you can use it as if it were installed. {It will not affect the Windows OS at this juncture.}
You can test every part of your computer to make sure it works on Linux Mint 21.3.
Consider this your education period in the world of Linux.
Play with it, do stuff with it, learn how Linux works by doing stuff.
Open one of the apps and see if it works OK.
Open several apps.
Believe me, you will learn a lot about Linux when using it this way.
If you are happy with how it works on your machine, go ahead and install it.

KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
Here is a fairly recent list of keyboard shortcuts:
https://technastic.com/linux-keyboard-shortcuts-list-pdf/

KDE
Which linux distro comes with dolphin, dragon, and telepathy apps?
https://fedoraproject.org/spins/kde/

KUBUNTU
https://kubuntu.org/
Kubuntu 22.04.4 LTS
The latest Long Term Support (LTS) version of the Kubuntu operating system for desktop PCs and laptops, Kubuntu 22.04 supported with security and maintenance updates, until April 2025.

Ubuntu Spyware: What to Do?
https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/ubuntu-spyware.en.html
How does one on Kubuntu access Linux Mints' repository?
Instead you should access repository of Ubuntu with apt
Every distro has it's own repository.

LINUX JOURNEY
Learn the ways of Linux-fu, for free.
https://linuxjourney.com/

Which linux distro comes with dolphin, dragon, and telepathy apps?
https://fedoraproject.org/spins/kde/

YOUTUBE

LINUX FOR SENIORS
https://youtube.com/@linuxforseniors?si=vQHXEogTOHSRDSRb

LINUX MINT INSTALLATION GUIDE
https://linuxmint-installation-guide.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

Linux Mint 21.3 "Virginia"
Linux Mint 21.3 is here - and it's outstanding

https://www.zdnet.com/article/linux-mint-21-3-is-here-and-this-is-why-its-outstanding/

Which linux distro comes with dolphin, dragon, and telepathy apps?
https://fedoraproject.org/spins/kde/ (IBM)

YOUTUBE

LINUX FOR SENIORS
https://youtube.com/@linuxforseniors?si=vQHXEogTOHSRDSRb

LMDE 6 "Faye"
Cinnamon Edition
https://www.linuxmint.com/edition.php?id=308
Keeping to the easy newbie distributions, then ...Mint LMDE is based directly on Debian [without the Ubuntu bloat it is also a tad quicker]

CLOSED SOURCE
Closed source Packages are quite dependant on your Hardware. some Wifi and other drivers are closed source. Debian used to be closed source completely and it was a real problem to get the drivers needed installed. but since version 12 was released that is no longer an issue as they include them now. I wouldn't pay too much attention to that site. It's run by someone who has a hang up on proprietary packages. To be honest almost all modern machines need some of those , plus codecs to run video, ETC. In mint you have a choice during install to include the closed source stuff or not.

LINUX MINT UBUNTU BASED
Linux Mint 21.3 is here - and it's outstanding

"Linux Mint 21.3
The latest release is Linux Mint 21.3 "Virginia", released on January 12, 2024. As an LTS release, it will be supported until 2027. Linux Mint Debian Edition, not compatible with Ubuntu, is based on Debian and updates are brought in continuously between major versions (of LMDE)." - Wikipedia

Newby-friendly Distros
1. Mint (offers Cinnamon,Mate & XFCE DEs) Either Mint 21.x or LMDE6 Both are good!
2. MX-Linux (they offer a nice KDE version also)
3. Kubuntu (KDE DE)
4 Debian (offers KDE among others, Defaults to Gnome)
5. Ubuntu (gnome DE)
6. PCLinux OS (offers KDE,XFCE, Mate and others.)
With any of the above you do not need programming experience.
Though not expressly needed today eventually you'll want to learn some Terminal use. It opens Linux up to so much. Though with today's modern DE's you will not need to use the terminal if you don't want to.

OBS Studio
Free and open source software for video recording...

STORAGE
On Linux, everything is a file. These files are stored with a system – such as a particular formatting method like Ext4. Collectively, this is your file system: https://linux-tips.us/the-du-command-in-linux/

SUPER MODERATOR
A good site for info, run by @KGIII, our esteemed Super Moderator

TIPS
It is worthwhile to keep a note of the link: https://linux-tips.us/indexes/index/ It has a search function which works well.

TORRENT
Torrent is a p2p user share app I don't bother with it, go to the download page of your chosen distribution [we will stick with LMDE for this quick tutorial]. On the download page you will find several links, the first one to open and read is the installation notes then the release note [which will tell you of known problems]
then select the AMD64 [or it may just say 64 bit] download now with mint its a bit different to some distributions, in that you scroll down the download page to a list of national mirrors, find the closest to you select and it should start to download.

UHost Web Hosting
https://uhost.cyou/

USB
USB flash drive also known as pendrive, thumb drive, keychain drive, memory stick, dater stick, flash stick among others. A persistence pen drive is one where the ISO is written to the drive as a bootable drive with the ability to update, store, recall and amend files without losing them [this we call non volatile storage]
----
ACCESS BIOS SETTINGS and BOOT MENU

https://www.disk-image.com/faq-bootmenu.htm

https://www.boot-disk.com/quest_bootmenu.htm

https://support.fixmestick.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001753213-List-of-Boot-Menu-Hot-Keys

https://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/bios-keys-to-access-your-firmware,5732.html

https://techofide.com/blogs/boot-me...ters-and-laptops-updated-list-2021-techofide/

ABOUT DISTROS
Plasma = KDE Plasma = a Desktop Environment (used by many distros)
Fedora = Linux distribution (uses many different DE's as "spins")
Ubuntu = Linux distribution (uses many different DE's as "flavors")
Kubuntu = Ubuntu with KDE Plasma desktop
Xubuntu = Ubuntu with XFCE desktop
Lubuntu = Ubuntu with LXQT desktop

Not every distro makes a spin/flavor with KDE Plasma, but you can usually install it into a distro that does not have it. Far better to start with one that includes it as you get started.
---
Cinnamon is a Desktop Environment (DE)... like the others mentioned before: GNOME, XFCE, KDE, LXQT, and MATE are all Desktop Environments. And there are others. Besides DE's there are also Window Managers (WM), such as Fluxbox, i3, IceWM, JWM (Joe's Window Manager), and others. Each product is a labor of love by those who make them to share their vision of how things should look and how they should work. But everyone has different ideas, so you have choices.

WM's and DE's are what gives you the look and feel of the graphical desktop.... while all are using the Linux kernel under the hood (not always the same kernel). Window Managers are typically "lighter" (need less RAM and CPU resources) than Desktop Environments, so they may be preferred on very old computers. There are some differences in behavior too, and it's good to test some samples of both as you learn your way around.

XFCE, KDE and the original GNOME are "old timers" of the X Desktop world, but others branched off from them, and GNOME has reinvented itself over the years. MATE is a fork of GNOME 2, and Cinnamon is a fork of GNOME 3.

Both DE's and WM's give various options and controls for the user to change each one to suit their own needs. But they can't all do everything, nor suit everyone. You can download or create your own themes to customize your desktop. There are many applets that can run on the desktop, like local weather or system usage (memory, hard disk space, etc).

Alternatives to Chrome browser:

  • Chromium itself
  • Chrome (which is but a derivative)
  • Brave
  • SRWare's Iron browser (my favourite Chrome replacement)
  • Opera
  • FlashPeak's Slimjet
  • Vivaldi
  • .....and even M$'s Edge for Linux browser (Sorry!) :oops:
 
Last edited:


One page you may want to add is
Thanks! It looks like a great resource! I added it and will post a revision probably tomorrow. Also, it's now on my website here:

 
to add a signature, look at your ID and profile name on the top right, left-click on your screen name and select signature from the drop down box.
 
Anyone can feel free to correct me if I post anything inappropriate.
We are fairly relaxed, but the powers to be will jump on you, for breaching the rules on ethnicity, religion and language as we are a 13+ site [but we never know how old someone is] also a dim view will be taken on such as self-promotion and advertising
 
"If Microsoft ever does applications for Linux it means I've won"..... Linus Torvalds

with Microsoft using Linux to run their cloud, and their own Linux desktop in house for writing windows, oh and the introduction of WSL, It looks like Linus is on the way
 
MSFT also releases VSCode for Linux.

MSFT was once a UNIX company and is on the Linux Foundation. They contribute to the kernel and to financially support the project.

If Linux gathers enough users, we may see (for better or worse) MSFT Office ported to Linux.
 
We are fairly relaxed, but the powers to be will jump on you, for breaching the rules on ethnicity, religion and language as we are a 13+ site [but we never know how old someone is] also a dim view will be taken on such as self-promotion and advertising
Is my website link in the signature considered 'self-promotion and advertising'? That always has felt to be a vague term with much range for interpretation. The Whole Human website is totally non-commercial and doesn't feel self-promoting to me, but to others?
 
Is my website link in the signature considered 'self-promotion and advertising'
I am merely a humble member, if it's a problem you will soon find out. But it doesn't look offensive to me
 
 
MSFT was once a UNIX company and is on the Linux Foundation.

Vscode, Edge browser, Teams app, you can run MSoffice in a browser on Linux. ( office365.com )
The Azure/Microsoft WAagent, and Defender for Linux run on LinuxVMs in Azure.
 
I am merely a humble member, if it's a problem you will soon find out. But it doesn't look offensive to me
This forum is still mostly confusing to me, due primarily I think to my iPad and slow wifi with long delays and frequent freezes. Guessing the wifi issue is as much in the iPad as the signal.

So it will be a new ball game when the ThinkPad arrives (I call it the 'Higher Thought Pad' to myself.)

Looking over the Linux installation guide, there will be many questions along the way. I like to be as prepared as possible for the new arrival.

"Depending on the age of your machine you will need an installation medium, this is usually a clean pen-drive of 4 GB minimum (try not to exceed 16 GB), make sure it is of good quality and formatted to FAT32 or exFAT."

The device build is 2016 which happily is within your 3-8 year old recommendation.

Is a persistent pen drive the same as a USB stick?

How do I format it?

I have forgotten the DOS commands.
 
Is my website link in the signature considered 'self-promotion and advertising'?

It is when it contains material that would not be acceptable on the site. I only took a quick look and it contains stuff about microdosing (and I stopped looking at that point). We have children who visit.

So, yeah, you're gonna want to remove that. You can start a Linux site and link that in your signature, for example.
 
USB flash drive also known as pendrive, thumb drive, keychain drive, memory stick, dater stick, flash stick among others.
A persistence pen drive is one where the ISO is written to the drive as a bootable drive with the ability to update, store, recall and amend files without loosing them [this we call non volatile storage]
A live ISO on a pendrive is for installing only and is what we call volatile [it will lose any changes when powered down]
 
Vscode, Edge browser, Teams app, you can run MSoffice in a browser on Linux. ( office365.com )
The Azure/Microsoft WAagent, and Defender for Linux run on LinuxVMs in Azure.

The days of EEE appear to be over.
 
It is when it contains material that would not be acceptable on the site. I only took a quick look and it contains stuff about microdosing (and I stopped looking at that point). We have children who visit.

So, yeah, you're gonna want to remove that. You can start a Linux site and link that in your signature, for example.
Okay, I will remove the link from my signature.
 
LINKS FOR LINUX NEWCOMERS
and resources for reference by old timers
Revised March 13, 2024
There will likely be unintended duplications, etc. here. Corrections and additions are appreciated.
----
LINKS FOR LINUX ON THE FORUMS
https://www.linux.org/threads/links-for-linux-newcomers.48916/#post-221532
Composed by Emanate Presence, with much helpful input from the Linux forum and other users.
---
My setup is ordered and on the way:
Device: 2016 HTP 'Higher Thought Pad' (a.k.a. ThinkPad) with a German OS and keyboard
Intended OS: Mint Linux Cinnamon Virginia or Kubuntu
---
In the Linux development history, in certain distros, there arose issues of privacy that included sending user information to corporate entities, a common practice which is anathema for some. It's a matter of weaknesses in human character, differences in values and perspectives, and overall it relates to the human condition.

Advancing the human condition is one of my favorite subjects but not suitable for discussion along these lines in the Linux forum, I would say. Generally a question arises of whether those responsible for breaches of trust in the community have had a true change of heart or would do the same again. A reformed alcoholic can be the most stalwart proponent of righteous behavior. Who knows a man's heart? It's just something each person has to resolve in and for themselves.

Regarding the Linux distro issue, apparently it hasn't been resolved for all. Personal information on the computer remaining private is preferable, but I feel no strong concern with it anonymously going to Amazon for example. There's always the possibility of this type of thing being misused in the future, that's the state of the human condition. Integrity in the development team would allow no opening for such possibilities.

The distro in question as I understand has disabled the automatic sending of information while keeping it a user option. I support awareness in the community so there is always a choice for informed consent. The present situation is not concerning enough to prevent my installing an Ubuntu based distro like LM Virginia. I appreciate being informed.

100 Best Applications for Ubuntu 2023
https://linuxhint.com/100_best_ubuntu_apps/

TOP 10 LINUX SCREEN RECORDERS IN 2024 + INSTRUCTIONS
https://screenrec.com/screen-recorder/linux-screen-recorders/

eSpeak: Text To Speech Tool For Linux
https://itsfoss.com/espeak-text-speech-linux/

Alternative desktops for Fedora
https://fedoraproject.org/spins/

APP FOR BEGINNERS
one of the most useful apps [especially for the beginner]
https://www.howtogeek.com/devops/the-linux-system-information-tool-inxi/

INSTALLING APP
Apps will likely be in the Ubuntu repository [you won't be able to check until you have installed your distribution]. When you have installed your distribution, click on the menu icon, now look for the software manager, click and open. It will have a search box, type the name of the app and a list will appear of anything associated with your search, select the app and click on install.

BOOT TYPES
1] Bootable Linux installation pen-drive
Make to install Linux to your computer [at least 4gb pen-drive]
2] Bootable pen-drive with persistence
Use as a non volatile hard-drive and needs to be at least 64gb.
3] Boot repair USB
More specialised and used to repair your boot system if broken

BOOTABLE USB
Balena will turn your usb stick ....into a "bootable" usb stick....
Balena Etcher
This is the download file which you get from : https://www.linux.org/pages/download/

Create the bootable media

DEBLOAT WINDOWS
https://github.com/Raphire/Win11Debloat

DEBIAN DISTRO PROS
1. Stability - Debian is stable system, you won't encounter what ever software or OS issues using it, so far I had zero issues that would require me to troubleshoot anything other than if I screw something myself
2. Large package repository - Debian's repo is huge, what ever software you need it's there and ready to be installed, very rarely will you need to resort to 3rd party repositories to install software.
3. Privacy - there is no spyware running on system of any kind and there is clear statement about software and release cycle

Major complaint from users is out of date packages and slow release cycles but that's what makes Debian stable, software available undergoes testings to minimize bugs as close to zero as possible. You can always install a newer version of software.

DESKTOP SESSION
Code:
echo $DESKTOP_SESSION

Open Terminal (ctrl+T)
Copy and paste it in and hit enter

It will tell you which desktop/session you are running

DISTROWATCH
https://distrowatch.com/

Distro Chooser
gives an "interview" to help you decide on a distro to try.
https://distrochooser.de/

DistroSea
actually lets your run a live Linux desktop through your web browser... if everything works as it should.

Dual Boot
"It depends on how you use it. Windows has a lot of security flaws. Since there will be an NTFS partition, I wouldn't feel comfortable using Linux for sensitive stuff on a dual boot machine."

Easy Linux Tips Project
https://easylinuxtipsproject.blogspot.com/p/2.html

EMANATE PRESENCE PROFILE ON LINUX FORUMS
https://www.linux.org/members/emanate-presence.175917/

Festival Speech Synthesis System
https://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/projects/festival/
FORUMS
https://www.linux.org/forums/

GNOME Desktop Environment for UBUNTU
GNOME YouTube 1


GNOME YouTube 2

History of Various Linux Distros

How Do I Install Linux (A General Guide)
https://linux-tips.us/how-do-i-install-linux-a-general-guide/

INSTALLATION GUIDE
LINUX INSTALL GUIDE

How Do I Install Linux (A General Guide)
https://linux-tips.us/how-do-i-install-linux-a-general-guide/

HOW DO I TRY LINUX
https://www.linux.org/threads/how-do-i-try-linux.45037/

INSTALLATION GUIDE
Read this...it is straight from the guys who make Linux Mint
https://linuxmint-installation-guide.readthedocs.io/en/latest/install.html

This is what I would do, @Emanate Presence.
{I have LM 21.3 installed on this computer}
~ Old Geezer Tango Charlie

Install Balena Etcher
BOOTABLE USB
Balena will turn your usb stick ....into a "bootable" usb stick....
Balena Etcher
https://etcher.balena.io/

This is the download file which you get LM from : https://www.linux.org/pages/download/

1. Download Linux Mint 21.3 CINNAMON.
2. Use Balena Etcher to 'burn' LM to a flash disk.
3. When that is finished, shut down computer; leave flash disk attached to computer.
4. Start computer and enter the BIOS section. {While booting up tap F-2 key several times}
Make sure Fast Boot and Secure Boot are disabled.
5. Choose the flash disk to start from when the computer starts up.
6. Re-start computer.
  • If the computer starts with LM, you can use it as if it were installed. {It will not affect the Windows OS at this juncture.}
  • You can test every part of your computer to make sure it works on Linux Mint 21.3.
  • Consider this your education period in the world of Linux.
  • Play with it, do stuff with it, learn how Linux works by doing stuff.
  • Open one of the apps and see if it works OK.
  • Open several apps.
  • Believe me, you will learn a lot about Linux when using it this way.
  • If you are happy with how it works on your machine, go ahead and install it.

KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
Here is a fairly recent list of keyboard shortcuts:
https://technastic.com/linux-keyboard-shortcuts-list-pdf/

KDE
Which linux distro comes with dolphin, dragon, and telepathy apps?
https://fedoraproject.org/spins/kde/

KUBUNTU
https://kubuntu.org/
Kubuntu 22.04.4 LTS
The latest Long Term Support (LTS) version of the Kubuntu operating system for desktop PCs and laptops, Kubuntu 22.04 supported with security and maintenance updates, until April 2025.

Ubuntu Spyware: What to Do?
https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/ubuntu-spyware.en.html
How does one on Kubuntu access Linux Mints' repository?
Instead you should access repository of Ubuntu with apt
Every distro has it's own repository.

LINUX JOURNEY
Learn the ways of Linux-fu, for free.
https://linuxjourney.com/

Which linux distro comes with dolphin, dragon, and telepathy apps?
https://fedoraproject.org/spins/kde/

YOUTUBE

LINUX FOR SENIORS
https://youtube.com/@linuxforseniors?si=vQHXEogTOHSRDSRb

LINUX MINT INSTALLATION GUIDE
https://linuxmint-installation-guide.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

Linux Mint 21.3 "Virginia"
Linux Mint 21.3 is here - and it's outstanding

https://www.zdnet.com/article/linux-mint-21-3-is-here-and-this-is-why-its-outstanding/

Which linux distro comes with dolphin, dragon, and telepathy apps?
https://fedoraproject.org/spins/kde/ (IBM)

YOUTUBE

LINUX FOR SENIORS
https://youtube.com/@linuxforseniors?si=vQHXEogTOHSRDSRb

LMDE 6 "Faye"
Cinnamon Edition
https://www.linuxmint.com/edition.php?id=308
Keeping to the easy newbie distributions, then ...Mint LMDE is based directly on Debian [without the Ubuntu bloat it is also a tad quicker]

CLOSED SOURCE
Closed source Packages are quite dependant on your Hardware. some Wifi and other drivers are closed source. Debian used to be closed source completely and it was a real problem to get the drivers needed installed. but since version 12 was released that is no longer an issue as they include them now. I wouldn't pay too much attention to that site. It's run by someone who has a hang up on proprietary packages. To be honest almost all modern machines need some of those , plus codecs to run video, ETC. In mint you have a choice during install to include the closed source stuff or not.

LINUX MINT UBUNTU BASED
Linux Mint 21.3 is here - and it's outstanding

"Linux Mint 21.3
The latest release is Linux Mint 21.3 "Virginia", released on January 12, 2024. As an LTS release, it will be supported until 2027. Linux Mint Debian Edition, not compatible with Ubuntu, is based on Debian and updates are brought in continuously between major versions (of LMDE)." - Wikipedia

Newby-friendly Distros
1. Mint (offers Cinnamon,Mate & XFCE DEs) Either Mint 21.x or LMDE6 Both are good!
2. MX-Linux (they offer a nice KDE version also)
3. Kubuntu (KDE DE)
4 Debian (offers KDE among others, Defaults to Gnome)
5. Ubuntu (gnome DE)
6. PCLinux OS (offers KDE,XFCE, Mate and others.)
With any of the above you do not need programming experience.
Though not expressly needed today eventually you'll want to learn some Terminal use. It opens Linux up to so much. Though with today's modern DE's you will not need to use the terminal if you don't want to.

OBS Studio
Free and open source software for video recording...

PERSISTENT DRIVE
To make a persistence drive, use Rufus:
https://www.linuxuprising.com/2019/08/rufus-creating-persistent-storage-live.html

STORAGE
On Linux, everything is a file. These files are stored with a system – such as a particular formatting method like Ext4. Collectively, this is your file system: https://linux-tips.us/the-du-command-in-linux/

SUPER MODERATOR
A good site for info, run by @KGIII, our esteemed Super Moderator

TIPS
It is worthwhile to keep a note of the link: https://linux-tips.us/indexes/index/ It has a search function which works well.

TORRENT
Torrent is a p2p user share app I don't bother with it, go to the download page of your chosen distribution [we will stick with LMDE for this quick tutorial]. On the download page you will find several links, the first one to open and read is the installation notes then the release note [which will tell you of known problems]
then select the AMD64 [or it may just say 64 bit] download now with mint its a bit different to some distributions, in that you scroll down the download page to a list of national mirrors, find the closest to you select and it should start to download.

UHost Web Hosting
https://uhost.cyou/

USB
USB flash drive also known as pendrive, thumb drive, keychain drive, memory stick, dater stick, flash stick among others. A persistence pen drive is one where the ISO is written to the drive as a bootable drive with the ability to update, store, recall and amend files without losing them [this we call non volatile storage]
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ACCESS BIOS SETTINGS and BOOT MENU

https://www.disk-image.com/faq-bootmenu.htm

https://www.boot-disk.com/quest_bootmenu.htm

https://support.fixmestick.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001753213-List-of-Boot-Menu-Hot-Keys

https://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/bios-keys-to-access-your-firmware,5732.html

https://techofide.com/blogs/boot-me...ters-and-laptops-updated-list-2021-techofide/

ABOUT DISTROS
Plasma = KDE Plasma = a Desktop Environment (used by many distros)
Fedora = Linux distribution (uses many different DE's as "spins")
Ubuntu = Linux distribution (uses many different DE's as "flavors")
Kubuntu = Ubuntu with KDE Plasma desktop
Xubuntu = Ubuntu with XFCE desktop
Lubuntu = Ubuntu with LXQT desktop

Not every distro makes a spin/flavor with KDE Plasma, but you can usually install it into a distro that does not have it. Far better to start with one that includes it as you get started.
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Cinnamon is a Desktop Environment (DE)... like the others mentioned before: GNOME, XFCE, KDE, LXQT, and MATE are all Desktop Environments. And there are others. Besides DE's there are also Window Managers (WM), such as Fluxbox, i3, IceWM, JWM (Joe's Window Manager), and others. Each product is a labor of love by those who make them to share their vision of how things should look and how they should work. But everyone has different ideas, so you have choices.

WM's and DE's are what gives you the look and feel of the graphical desktop.... while all are using the Linux kernel under the hood (not always the same kernel). Window Managers are typically "lighter" (need less RAM and CPU resources) than Desktop Environments, so they may be preferred on very old computers. There are some differences in behavior too, and it's good to test some samples of both as you learn your way around.

XFCE, KDE and the original GNOME are "old timers" of the X Desktop world, but others branched off from them, and GNOME has reinvented itself over the years. MATE is a fork of GNOME 2, and Cinnamon is a fork of GNOME 3.

Both DE's and WM's give various options and controls for the user to change each one to suit their own needs. But they can't all do everything, nor suit everyone. You can download or create your own themes to customize your desktop. There are many applets that can run on the desktop, like local weather or system usage (memory, hard disk space, etc).
 
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